The African Development Bank will finance $25 billion by 2025 to support Africa's fight against climate change, the bank's president said at the bank's annual meeting in Accra, Ghana.
He noted that climate change has had many negative impacts on the continent, causing natural disasters such as droughts, cyclones, and floods. Climate change costs Africa between $7 billion and $15 billion a year. "Africa has no choice but to address climate change."
To ensure Africa's food supply, the African Development Bank has delivered climate-friendly seeds to 12 million farmers in 27 countries in the past two years under the "Technology for Agricultural Change in Africa" program, he said.
In the area of renewable energy, the African Development Bank is implementing a $20 billion "Desert Power" initiative in the Sahel that is expected to power 250 million people, he said.
US President Joe Biden recently wrapped up his five-day trip to Asia with a summit of leaders of the "Quad" security Dialogue.
Biden has promoted a number of economic and security cooperation initiatives during his visit aimed at deepening ties with Indo-Pacific Allies and partners in response to China's growing influence in the region. Some analysts in the United States believe the most significant announcement may be an initiative to share maritime information to combat illegal activities. But other experts say Biden's move sets a good framework for more security cooperation, though it remains to be seen whether concrete action will follow.
Affected by several factors, the supply of the AlN powder is erratic and thus its prices are expected to go higher in the future.
Aluminum Nitride Research History
Aluminum nitride is a kind of ceramic material with excellent comprehensive performance, and its research can be traced back more than 100 years ago. It was discovered by F. Birgeler and A. Gutter in 1862, and synthesized by J.W. Mallets for the first time in 1877, but there was no practical application in the following 100 years. It was used as fertilizer only as a nitrogen-fixing agent.
Aluminum nitride is a covalent compound with a low self-diffusion coefficient and high melting point, which makes it difficult to sinter. It was not until the 1950s that the first aluminum nitride ceramics were successfully made and used as refractory materials in the smelting of pure iron, aluminum, and aluminum alloys. Since the 1970s, with the deepening of research, the preparation technology of aluminum nitride has become increasingly mature, and its application scope has also been expanding. Especially since the 21st century, with the rapid development of microelectronics technology, electronic machine, and electronic components is toward miniaturization, light-duty, integration, as well as the development direction, such as high reliability and high power output, more and more complex heat dissipation device to the substrate and packaging material put forward higher request, to further promote the vigorous development of the industry of aluminum nitride.
Aluminum Nitride Characteristics
Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a hexagon wurtzite covalent bond compound with lattice parameters A =3.114, C =4.986. Pure aluminum nitride is blue-white, usually gray or off-white, and is a typical iii-ⅴwide bandgap semiconductor material.
Aluminum nitride (AlN) has the characteristics of high strength, high volume resistivity, high insulation and pressure resistance, thermal expansion coefficient, and a good match with silicon, not only used as a sintering agent or strengthening phase of structural ceramics, especially in the field of ceramic electronic substrate and packaging materials in recent years, its performance is far superior to alumina.
Aluminum Nitride Thermal Conductivity Mechanism
Of the series of important properties of aluminum nitride, the most remarkable is its high thermal conductivity. A great deal of research has been done on the thermal conductivity mechanism of aluminum nitride, and a relatively perfect theoretical system has been formed. The main mechanism is heat transfer through lattice or lattice vibration, that is, by lattice wave or thermal wave. The results of quantum mechanics tell us that lattice waves can be treated as the motion of a particle, the phonon. Thermal waves also have wave-particle duality. Thermal phonons transfer heat through mutual restriction and coordination of vibrations among structural elements (atoms, ions, or molecules). If the crystal is a non-elastic body with a perfect structure, the heat can be transferred freely from the hot end of the crystal to the cold end without any interference and scattering, and the thermal conductivity can reach a very high value. The thermal conductivity is mainly controlled by crystal defects and phonon scattering.
The theoretical thermal conductivity of AlN can reach 320W·m-1·K-1, but the actual thermal conductivity of AlN is less than 200W·m-1· k-1 due to impurities and defects in AlN. This is mainly because the structural elements in the crystal cannot have a completely strict uniform distribution, and there are always different sparse and dense regions, so the current-carrying phonons will always be interfered with and scattered in the propagation process.
Aluminum Nitride Price
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Aluminum Nitride Supplier
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